Instructional Design Models in the 21st Century: A Review


Instructional Design Models in the 21st Century: A Review

Dick & Carey, Kemp, Gagne’s and many other instructional design models originated from the ‘basic’ instructional design pattern of ADDIE. These instructional design models over time came to provide components, named differently or in some cases many steps of one model is combined together into one step of another model.

However in doing so, they are all trying to design, develop and implement an effective instructional design model. But these traditional instructional design models hold a world view which is objective in nature and holds the assumption that the purpose of instruction is to transfer information and knowledge to the learners. The instructional design models are designed in a top-down, linear/non-linear, systematic, iterative and objective in manner. Such models tends to be cumbersome for real-life situations as learning is not always straight forward and cannot be defined objectively.

Most of these instructional design models were developed for a ‘classroom setting’ wherein the models prescribe methods in a  rigid manner for all the different context keeping in mind the assumption that all the learners learn in the same way and/or keep the same approach to learning in a classroom environment. Most of the instructional design models over time have constantly been criticized for being focused on the process rather than the actual people involved in the learning process.  The approach provided by these ID models towards pedagogy, structure of the knowledge domains are not flexible and adaptable. Under such criticism, instructional design model need to move from adopting a standard approach to developing models that could be customized to the 21st century needs of each learner and thereby creating a much better learning experience both in classroom and online. 

With the infusion of technology into the Learning Environment, wherein the concept of ‘anytime, anywhere, anyplace’ learning is underpinned, there could be a need to re-conceptualize the existing classroom settings. The emphasis of these classrooms should be more on learning rather than the instruction of delivery. With these in mind the strategy for selection of learning materials, mode of delivery and instruction cannot be pre-determined by the instructional designers as these strategies tend to evolve as the learning process evolves over time. Today the traditional way of learning does not necessarily happen only in environments which are authentic. But the basic competencies needed for higher order skills like analysis, evaluation, problem solving etc remains important in any environment. Hence traditional ID models will have to be re-modeled and re-designed to deliver instructions to students/learners in the information age today.

Alternative models needs to be designed to support active, experiential and collaborative learning one of the reason for this is today’s learners are much more pro-active in gaining and re-producing information.  Learners today have to be prepared for diverse and complex real life situations apart from learning, competencies should also be developed. As a result Instructional Design models needs to be moved in the direction of being flexible, customized and empowering learners if it is to allow Instructional Design models to keep up with the technological changes. Especially during the times when Instructional approaches are becoming more learner centered than process centered.

Image Courtesy

About the Author
Author: Uday NairWebsite: http://udayrnair.weebly.com
"A researcher at University of Sheffield,UK. My research interest are 'Web 2.0', 'e-learning', 'Ubiquitous technologies', 'social media' , 'systems thinking', 'instructional design', 'education', 'green computing'.

Where do you find/search for educational apps for your students?
 

The EdTech Tweets

EdTechReview Wearable Technology in the Classroom - EdTechReview™ http://t.co/RwbHhDdmlJ edtechchat edtech elearning satchat ce14 k12 educators
About 10 hours ago

Follow etr_in on Twitter
BLOG COMMENTS POWERED BY DISQUS

News | Data & Statistics

Research, Reviews & Dictionary

Trends & Insights

EdTech Voices

e-Learning

Events

About ETR Community

EdTechReview (ETR) is a community of and for everyone involved in education technology to connect and collaborate both online and offline to discover, learn, utilize and share about the best ways technology can improve learning, teaching, and leading in the 21st century.

EdTechReview spreads awareness on education technology and its role in 21st century education through best research and practices of using technology in education, and by facilitating events, training, professional development, and consultation in its adoption and implementation.

 

-> Read More

Join The Community

Subscribe and Join the 21,000+ members who trust us...

Testimonials
I find every news, reviews very informative and interesting. This site is indeed a great site for both teachers and learners. Thanks to EdTech for creating such an enriching site on education. Hats off!!
- Regin Brown, Educationist and Blogger, United Kingdom


My group likes this site because it's so up-to-date and has tons of relevant articles.
- Angela Giuliano, Teacher, New Mexico


Your write ups and articles ignites the minds making them receptive to the whole new wealth of EdTech.
- Jagat Rana, Parent, India


EdTechReview has some great resources for teachers who need to get some ideas about technology in the classroom.
- Loretta Wideman,Teacher, East Africa


EdTechReview keeps educators up to date with trending tech savvy terms relative to the discipline.
- Dr. Ingrid Rizzolo,Education Professional, Curriculum and Instruction Designer, New York City Area

-> Read More

Go to Our Network List

Core of Education EdTechDigest EmergingEdTech The Chronicle  Inside Higher Ed  Edutopia EyeOnEducation Eye On Education Classroomaid Classroomaid