[Infographic] How Personality Differences Affect Learning

How Personality Differences Affect Learning

The US is falling behind.

● Literacy Rates:
○ 2009: 1 in 3 students scored “below basic” on the NAEP Reading Test (National Assessment of Education Progress
■ 49% of the students who scored “below basic” were from low-income families
■ more than 67% of all US fourth graders scored “below proficient”

● they were not reading at grade level
○ 26% of eighth graders and 27% of twelfth graders scored below “basic” level
○ 32% eighth graders and 38% twelfth graders were at or above grade level

(assessment by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
● Math and Science:
○ 15-year-olds in the U.S. ranked 25th (out of 30 countries) in math performance
○ 15-year-olds in the U.S. ranked 21st (out of 30 countries) in science performance
● American 12th graders ranked 19th out of 21 industrialized countries in math achievement
○ they ranked 16th out of 21 in science
○ they ranked last (21st) out of 21 in advanced physics
● since 1983, more than 10 million Americans reached twelfth grade without knowing how to read at a basic level
○ more than 20 million reached twelfth grade without being able to do basic math
● Some things to consider:
○ Many students are not well-suited to wrote memorization
○ Memorization is favored by US public schools
○ An innovative/flexible approach to teaching would encompass more than one learning style

Different types of learning:
● Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, spatial understanding
● Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using music and sounds
● Verbal (linguistic): prefer using words, in writing and speech
● Logical (mathematical): prefer using systems, logic, and reasoning
● Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using sense of touch, hands, body
● Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn with other people or in groups
● Solitary (intrapersonal): prefer to use self-study and work alone

Each learning style uses different parts of the brain
○ left hemisphere:
■ speech
■ attention to details
■ writing, reading
■ verbal memory, verbal thinking
■ processes information in a linear manner
○ right hemisphere:
■ processing and storage of visual, tactile, musical, and spatial information
■ handles complex non-verbal material
● intuition, perceptiveness, inspirational hunches, emotional processing

Personality heavily influences learning style:
Collaborative learning isn’t for everyone:
● classrooms are typically situated for extroverts
● extroverts thrive working in collaborative groups and during class discussions
○ comfortable with public speaking and presentations
● introverts prefer quiet (as opposed to classroom noise and being bombarded with stimuli)
○ prefer working on individual projects
○ independent thinking

Check out this infographic for more details.

How Personality Affects Learning
Source: Top10OnlineColleges.org


Differences in basic personality affect our preferences for acquiring and integrating information
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
An assessment that divides and defines personality types
• developed mid-20th century based on four preferences
• Type of data provided based on four preferences:
◦ 1. Extroversion (E) vs. Introversion (I)
• how you direct your energy and relate to the world around you
▪ E: action oriented; energized by other people and things
▪ I: reflective thinker; energized by their inner world of ideas, abstractions, concepts
• 83% college student leaders are extraverts
• 65% Phi Beta Kappa members are introverts
◦ PBK=upperclassmen with highest GPAs
◦ 2. Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N)
• how you take in information from the environment
▪ S: detail oriented, trust and rely on facts
▪ N: seek patterns and relationships; trust hunches; look for the ‘big picture’
• almost 83% national merit scholarship finalists are N
• 92% Rhodes scholars are N
◦ 3. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)
• how you make decisions
▪ T: value fairness; focus on situation’s logic; use objective criteria
▪ F: focus on human needs and values; value harmony; good at persuasion
◦ 4. Judging (J) vs. Perceptive (P)
• how you orient yourself with/to the outside world
▪ J: decisive, self-motivated, plan ahead, adhere to deadlines
▪ P: adaptable, curious, spontaneous; difficulty finishing a task; ignore deadlines
● Combined preferences indicate the Myers-Briggs personality type

There are 16 different MBTI types and each type has a distinct preferred learning style:

16 personality types:
• ISTJ: Guardian: practical, logical, dependable
◦ famous ISTJs: Warren Buffett, J.D. Rockefeller
• ISTP: Craftsman: reserved, analyze with detached curiosity; logical
◦ famous ISTPs: Michael Jordan, Amelia Earhart
• ISFJ: Defender: responsible, friendly, conscientious
◦ famous ISFJs: Mother Teresa, Clara Barton
• ISFP: Composer: sensitive, kind, modest
◦ famous ISFPs: Steven Spielberg, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
• INFJ: Protector: firm principles; quietly forceful; serve the common good
◦ famous INFJs: Mohandas Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt
• INFP: Dreamer: enthusiastic and loyal; care about ideas, language, and independent projects
◦ famous INFPs: George Orwell, Princess Diana
• INTJ: Strategist: driven by their own ideas/purposes; skeptical, determined, critical
◦ famous INTJs: Alan Greenspan, Hillary Clinton
• INTP: Thinker: quiet, reserved; enjoy scientific and theoretical pursuits; solve problems with analysis and logic
◦ famous INTPs: Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, Abraham Lincoln
• ESTP: Persuader: adaptable, tolerant, dislike long explanations; do best working with real things
◦ famous ESTPs: Winston Churchill, Donald Trump
• ESTJ: Overseer: practical, matter of fact, realistic; run/organize activities
◦ famous ESTJs: George Washington, VInce Lombardi
• ESFP: Entertainer: easygoing, memorizing facts; common sense, people skills
◦ famous ESFPs: Elvis Presley, Ronald Reagan, Judy Garland
• ESFJ: Caregiver: talkative, cooperative, work best with praise and encouragement; interested in things that have direct and practical help in others’ lives
◦ famous ESFJs: Barbara Walters, Ray Kroc, Martha Stewart
• ENFP: Advocate: enthusiastic, imaginative; always willing/ready to help anyone; good at improvising
◦ famous ENFPs: Bill Clinton, Mark Twain
• ENFJ: Giver: responsible, sociable; responsive to praise and/or criticism; sympathetic, tactful
◦ famous ENFJs: Oprah Winfrey, Ralph Nader, Martin Luther King, Jr.
• ENTP: Originator: outspoken, resourceful, good at using logic to validate their rationale, change interests in rapid succession
◦ famous ENTPS: Walt Disney, Benjamin Franklin, Nikola Tesla
• ENTJ: Executive: decisive leader, frank, excel at logical reasoning, well-informed
◦ famous ENTJs: Carl Sagan, Margaret Thatcher

CTA: Different personality types utilize different learning styles; sensitivity to these differences would help students succeed.

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