5 ways to integrate twitter into the writing classroom

The best way to combat lecture boredom is to ask students to take out their smart phones and tweet. And, possibly, the easiest way to introduce how Twitter works is by providing students with a provocative image and asking them to tweet a sentence that includes both character and action in order to tell the story of the image as seen in the example in Figure 1.

The image of the snake portrays a story, a frozen moment at the end of the beginning of a life. The creature is both earth-bound and ethereal in appearance. The story of this snake would be that it was born late in the fall on a day too cold to sustain life; crawling from it’s egg, it found a warm location on a stretch of asphalt; and as the temperatures dropped, it tied itself into a knot of such beauty and mystery, one so taut and unlikely, that it will surely die within the hour. A tweet cannot encompass the breadth of this story, so I simply wrote: “Newborn snake tied in a Celtic knot.” When an image like this is shared on a social media service or platform like Twitter, it engages the audience in the age-old tradition of storytelling, Likewise, introducing Twitter into the writing classroom provides a social environment that allows students to form a community of practice and engage in formal learning through digital storytelling.

Twitter can be integrated into classroom practices for a number of purposes and a number of ways. Here are my top five twitter activities:

  1. Tweet course announcements prior to the start of class 
  2. Tweet sentence-level exercises
  3. Tweet questions for the instructor or guest speaker during lectures
  4. Tweet questions to the instructor outside of class  
  5. Turn twitter activities into a narrative to summarize what happened

Before you get started, you will need to understand basic Twitter terminology:

Twitter terms that you might need to know:

Social network service – a platform that builds social relations among people

Social Media – interaction that occurs or takes place through a social network platform that builds virtual or online communities that create, share, exchange information and comment

Twitter - an online social networking or broadcasting service in the form of a microblog that allows users to send text-based messages of up to 140 characters in addition to other forms of media such as images and videos.

Microblogging - the posting of short entries or updates on a social networking service

Tweet - a microblogging message limited to 140 characters

Hashtag - the # symbol is placed before keywords or topics in a Twitter message to facilitate a twitter search for that specific keyword (see Figure 2 below)

Backchannel – an online conversation that takes place in real-time alongside a primary spoken activity, created with a shared twitter hashtag

Widget - an application that allows a user to perform or access a service

Twitter feed widget – a service that displays current tweets from a specific hashtag or twitter user (see Figure 2 below)


 

Refer to the above terminology when needed. Next, I will explain how each of the five Twitter practices can be integrated into your writing course.

1. Tweet course announcements prior to the start of class. Tweeting course announcements prior to the start of class will help situate the students in terms of setting expectations and establishing motivation for attendance. Announcements or reminders can concern guest speakers, special treats, links to online slideshows or any other material that will facilitate the start of class. This activity, in effect, sustains interaction and communication (Gao et al, 2012, Lowe & Laffey, 2011, and Rinaldo et al, 2011).

2. Tweet sentence-level exercises. A key goal when teaching basic writing is to emphasize the story telling nature behind constructing a sentence. The subject and verb of your sentence should be seen as characters and action (Williams 2007). Furthermore, Tweets are limited to 140 characters (letters, spaces, and symbols); this microblogging format generates a writing style that requires both clarity and conciseness. In addition, Twitter is a social medium where the sharing of digital stories is a community event meant to engage and provoke further conversations. This practice will show students “how to learn” and encourages interactive activities (Gao et al, 2012).

Tips for writing effective tweets

    • Don’t use all 140 characters, shorter tweets are more engaging
    • Include a hashtag on a keyword, making it simple to follow course tweets 
    • Tweet at another member or @anothermember to create a conversation

3. Tweet questions for the instructor or guest speaker during lectures. Create a back channel by asking students to tweet questions during class and take time to read and answer those questions during or after the lecture or presentation. This practice will allow the quieter students an opportunity to participate and enables immediate participation (Elavsky et al, 2011, Gao et al 2012).

4. Tweet questions after class to the instructor. This forum will provide a quick and dirty Q&A system to solve common problems. You will find yourself looking forward to such tweets since both parties are limited in scope in terms of messaging length, 140 characters. The shared conversation will benefit the community as whole and reduce your workload. This activity also sustains interaction and communication outside of the classroom (Gao et al, 2012, Lowe & Laffey, 2011, and Rinaldo et al, 2011).

5. Turn twitter activities into a narrative to summarize a class activity. A Twitter feed can provide a narrative of Twitter moments. After an activity, you can read through the feed to discuss what happened, what worked, and what students should take away from the lesson. In this manner, you are essentially documenting the process (Wright 2010, Gao et al 2012).


 The following tips and instructions will prepare you to introduce Twitter activities:

  • Identify a specialized hashtag accompanied next to a keyword for each section or course that you are teaching. For example, I use #eatmontreal for a food writing course that I offer (see Figure 2 below).
  • Next, create a twitter feed widget or online display for your hashtag and post it on a prominent page of your online course management system or website (see Figure 2 below). Directions for making a twitter feed widget will follow.


Figure 2: A course web page that includes a twitter feed widget

The following steps will help you sign up for twitter and create a twitter feed widget for your online course management system. If you don’t have an online course management system, you can sign up for free server space on the Internet with a number of blogging sites, such as Blogger, Weebly, WordPress or Tumblr, to name only a few. To create your twitter feed widget, you will need a personal computer and Internet service.

Tip: In order to complete this task, you should have an online course management system such as Moodle or Blackboard or a course website and a basic understanding or knowledge of how to embed HTML code or hypertext markup language on a web page. If you don’t have this understanding or capability, consider omitting the Twitter feed widget.

1. Open Twitter in your browser window: www.twitter.com

2. Sign up for an account or log into your current Twitter account.

Tip: Avoid using dates and underscores when choosing a Twitter name. If possible, use your full name to establish the authenticity of your account.

Figure 3: Creating a Twitter feed widget

 

3. Once you are logged into your account, select the  Settings button located on the upper right side of the page as shown in Figure 3.

 

Figure 4: Creating the widget

4. Once you have opened Settings, select Widgets as shown in Figure 4.

5. Select Create New.


 

6. Select the Search option for your widget design as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Selecting the Search option for your widget

7. Type your course hashtag.

8. Select Save.

Figure 6: Copying the widget code or script.

9. Copy the code provided and paste as <> or html code onto the home web page of your course website or learning management system as shown in Figure 6.

10. Select Save.

You are now ready to integrate Twitter practices into the design of your writing course as shown in Figure 7.


Figure 7: Course twitter feed


 

Writing is a social activity

The narrative paradigm theory argues that all human communication consists of storytelling (Fisher 1987). What this means is that we experience life as a series of stories, and like all good stories, each one must contain characters embroiled in conflicts that move along a timeline. The storyteller’s audience measures the truthfulness or authenticity of a story contextually by reflecting on shared history and culture. Twitter provides such a setting, one intended for the sharing of stories and ensuing conversation, one which can potentially engage students in a social learning environment that provides an ideal community of practice for becoming writers. Situated learning theorists contend that communities of practice shift the learning process from the cognitive to the social (Hunga & Yuenb, 2011). As a learning tool, social networking services like Twitter can enhance students’ sense of classroom community and provide an ideal community of practice that operates within and outside the classroom boundaries (Hunga & Yuenb, 2011 p. 713). Its popular appeal has created a world of storytellers. Since its inception in 2006, the Twitter microblogging social network service has enrolled more than 180,000,000 users worldwide (Dijck 2011).

Recent studies indicate that social networking services like Twitter can impact learning outcomes and increase student engagement (Heiberger and Harper, 2008; Heiberger and Loken, 2011; Rinaldo, Tapp & Laverie, 2011; Wodzicki, Schwammlein & Moskaliuk, 2012; Manion & Selfe, 2012; Kassens-Noor, 2012). Mills and Chandra (2011) discovered, “As with learning in general, microblogging establishes an active social dynamic among the participants to create an open, fluid, and continuous dialogue, for the students and teacher to quickly identify shared starting points for discussion” (p. 43). For example, Heiberger and Loken (2011), in a quasi-experimental study, found that Twitter increased interactions between student and faculty, improved cooperation among students, promoted active learning, and encouraged them to provide prompt feedback. When students find themselves engaged, they spend more time on task and even deliver a better product.

 

References

Dijck J.V. (2011). Tracing Twitter: The rise of a microblogging platform. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics. 7 (3) pp. 333–348.

Elavsky,C.M., Mislan, C. & Elasvsky, S. (2011). When talking less is more: exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large-lecture hall. Learning, Media and Technology. 36.3. 215-233. DOI: 10.1080/17439884.201.549828

Fisher, W. R. (1987). Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action. Columbia: University of South Carolina P.


 

Gao, F., Luo, T. and Zhang, K. (2012) Tweeting for learning: A critical analysis of research on microbloging in education published in 2008-2011. British Journal of Educational Technology 43 (5) 783-801. Doi:10.111/j.1467-8335

Heiberger G. & Harper R. (2008) Have you Facebooked Astin lately? Using technology to increase student involvement. In Using Emerging Technologies to Enhance Student Engagement. New Directions for Student Services Issue#124 (eds R. Junco&D.M. Timm), pp. 19–35. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Heibergert & E. Loken (2011) The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27, 119-132.  doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x

Hunga H. and Yuenb S. C. (2011). Educational use of social networking technology in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education 15 (6) December 2010, 703-714

Kassens-Noor, E. (2012) Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education: The case of sustainable tweets. Active Learning in Higher Education 12 (1) 9-21.

Lampe, C., Wohn, D. Y., Vitak, J., Ellison, N. B., & Wash, R. (2011) Student use of facebook for organizing collaborative classroom activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6(3), 329-347. doi:10.1007/s11412-011-9115-y

Lowe, B. & Laffey D. (2011). Is Twitter for the birds?: Using Twitter to enhance student learning in a marketing course. Journal of Marketing Education, 33, 2, 183-192. DOI: 10.1177/0277/0273475311410851.

Manion, C. E.; Selfe, R. (2012) Sharing an Assessment Ecology: Digital Media, Wikis, and the Social Work of Knowledge. Technical Communication Quarterly. , 21 (1) 25-45. DOI: 10.1080/10572252.2012.626756

Mills, K.A., Chandra, V (2011). Microblogging as a Literacy Practice for Educational Communities. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 55 (1) 35-45.

Rinaldo, Shannon B. Tapp, Suanne, and Laverie, Debra A. (2011) Learning by tweeting: using twitter as a pedagogical tool. Journal of Marketing Education. 33 (2) 193-203, doi: 10.11.77/273475311410852.

Williams, J.M. and Colomb G.G. (2010) Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, 10th Ed. Longman: Boston.

Wodzicki, K., Schwammlein, E., Moskaliuk, J. (2012) “Actually, I wanted to learn”: study-related knowledge exchange on social networking sites. Internet and Higher Education 14 9-14. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.05.008

Wright, N. (2010). Twittering in teacher education: reflecting on practicum experiences. Open Learning. 25, 3, 2590265. DOI: 10.1080/02680513.2010.51202.


About the Author
Author: Jeannette Novakovich

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